Materials: 6 pound medicine ball


  • Participants sit with their back against a wall, knees bent at a right angle, and feet flat on the floor.
  • Participants held the medicine ball at shoulder height and are instructed to push the ball (not throw it) as far forward as possible, keeping their head, scapula on the nontest side, and back in contact with the wall and their nonthrowing arm in their lap.
  • Participants are given 2 practice trials, one at 75% effort and one at 100% effort, with 20 to 30 seconds of rest between each trial.
  • Practice trials are followed by 3 maximal-effort trials, again with a rest between each throw.
  • Distance is measured from the wall to the site of ball contact with the floor, and the results of the 3 maximal-effort trials were averaged together.


Study Population Type ICC SEC MDC
Negrete et al., 2010 Young Male and Female Subjects (Average age = 24.3) Test-retest 0.97-0.99 7-8 in. 17-18 in.

Normative Data:

Study Population Study Design Cut Point/Reference Value
Mayhew et al., 1997 College Male Subjects (Average age= 20.1) Cohort Study Pre-Training= 4.39m, Post-Training= 4.47m (4.5 kg ball)
Negrete et al., 2010 Young Male and Female Subjects (Average age = 24.3) Descriptive Laboratory Study Dominant Arm = 92.3 in., Non-Dominent Arm = 83.6 in.
Young Female Subjects (Average age = 24.9) Dominant Arm = 76.3 in., Non-Dominent Arm = 69.6 in.
Young Male Subjects (Average age = 23.4) Dominant Arm = 118.2 in., Non-Dominent Arm = 106.2 in.
Chmielewski et al., 2014 Collegiate Men’s Football (Average age = 19.4) Descriptive Laboratory Study Dominant Arm = 597.8 cm, Non-Dominent Arm = 553.4 cm, LSI: 108.1%
Collegiate Men’s Baseball (Average age = 20.3) Dominant Arm = 596.9 cm, Non-Dominent Arm = 541.8 cm, LSI: 110.8%
Collegiate Women’s Basketball (Average age = 20.7) Dominant Arm = 365.8 cm, Non-Dominent Arm = 351.0 cm, LSI: 104.5%
Collegiate Women’s Lacrosse (Average age = 19.8) Dominant Arm = 296.4 cm, Non-Dominent Arm = 287.7 cm, LSI: 103.2%
Collegiate Women’s Softball (Average age = 19.3) Dominant Arm = 342.5 cm, Non-Dominent Arm = 325.1 cm, LSI: 105.7%
Collegiate Women’s Volleyball (Average age = 20.3) Dominant Arm = 310.7 cm, Non-Dominent Arm = 292.6 cm, LSI: 106.3%


1. Mayhew JL, Bemben MG, Rohrs DM. Seated Shot Put as a Measure of Upper Body Power in Adolescent Wrestlers. Pediatric Exercise Science. 1992; 4: 78–84.

2. Mayhew JL, et al. Changes in Upper Body Power Following Heavy-Resistance
Strength Training in College Men
. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1997; 18: 516-520.

2. Negrete RJ, Hanney WJ, Davies GJ. Reliability, Minimal Detectable Change, and Normative Values for Tests of Upper Extremity Function and Power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010; 24(12): 3318–3325.

3. Negrete RJ, Hanney WJ, Davies GJ. Can Upper Extremity Functional Tests Predict the Softball Throw for Distance: A Predictive Validity Investigation. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2011; 6(2): 104–111.

4. Chmielewski TL, Martin C, Lentz TA, et al. Normalization Considerations for Using the Unilateral Seated Shot Put Test in Rehabilitation. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2014; 44(7): 518–524.

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