Materials: Y Balance Test Kit.
- The patient stands on the center footplate, with the distal aspect of the right foot at the starting line
- While maintaining single leg stance on the right leg, the patient reaches with the free limb (left leg) in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions in relation to the stance foot by pushing the indicator box as far as possible
- Participants complete 3 consecutive trials for each reach direction and to reduce fatigue subjects alternate limbs between each direction.
- Attempts are discarded and repeated if: The subject fails to maintain unilateral stance on the platform, Fails to maintain reach foot contact with the reach indicator on the target area while the reach indicator is in motion, Uses the reach indicator for stance support, or Fails to return the reach foot to the starting position under control
- The greatest reach of the three trials in each direction is recorded and the following formula is used to calculate the ‘Composite Score’
|Hannon et al, 2014||UCL Injured Baseball Players (Average age= 18.5)||Inter-Rater Reliability||0.86-0.99|
|Garrison et al, 2013||UCL Injured & Asymptomatic Baseball Players (Average age= 18.5)||Inter-Rater Reliability||0.86-0.99|
|Shaffer et al, 2013||Military (18-35 years old)||Intra-rater Reliability||0.85-0.93, 0.80-0.85|
|Plisky et al, 2009||Male collegiate soccer players||Intra-rater Reliability||0.88-0.99|
|Study||Population||Study Design||Reference Value|
|de la Motte et al., 2016||US Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps||Cross-Sectional||Anterior Reach Difference = 3.1cm, Composite Percentage = 90.9%, Composite Difference = 8.0cm|
|Male US Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps||Anterior Reach Difference = 3.1cm, Composite Percentage = 91.3%, Composite Difference = 8.1cm|
|Female US Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps||Anterior Reach Difference = 3.0cm, Composite Percentage = 88.7%, Composite Difference = 7.4cm|
|Johansson et al., 2016||Patients with Femoroacetabular Impingement (Symptomatic Limb)||Cross-Sectional||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 70%, PL = 77.6%, PM= 75.5%|
|Patients with Femoroacetabular Impingement (Asymptomatic Limb)||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 71.1%, PL = 82.4%, PM= 76.9%|
|Individuals without Femoroacetabular Impingement||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 73.5%, PL = 89.6%, PM= 76.9%|
|Hooper et al., 2016||Individuals with Current Low Back Pain||Cross-Sectional||Ant = 66.2 cm, PL = 94.7 cm, PM= 100.7 cm|
|Individuals with History of Low Back Pain||Ant = 66.4 cm, PL = 94.2 cm, PM= 102.3 cm|
|Individuals without Low Back Pain||Ant = 66.4 cm, PL = 105.8 cm, PM= 109.3 cm|
|Meardon et al., 2016||Injured Runners||Case-Control||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 79%, PL = 83%, PM= 85%|
|Runners with Leg/Ankle/Foot Injuries||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 82%, PL = 85%, PM= 88%|
|Runners with Hip/Thigh/Knee Injuries||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 75%, PL = 82%, PM= 81%|
|Wright et al., 2016||NCAA Division 1 Athletes||Prospective Cohort||Composite Score: 96.13%|
|Injured NCAA Division 1 Athletes||Composite Score: 96.47%|
|Non-Injured NCAA Division 1 Athletes||Composite Score: 95.83%|
|Doherty et al., 2015||Patients with CAI||Descriptive Laboratory Study||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 61.7%, PL = 93.2%, PM= 100.7%|
|Ankle Sprain Copers||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 63.0%, PL = 99.8%, PM= 104.6%|
|Stiffler et al., 2015||Collegiate Basketball Players||Descriptive Laboratory Study||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 64.3%/63.4%, PL = 88.7%/85.7%, PM= 100.2%/101.5|
|Collegiate Golf Players||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 69.4%/67.6, PL = 86.5%/85.9, PM= 105.3%/102.2%|
|Collegiate Hockey Players||Percent of Leg Length: Ant =66.6/67.0%, PL = 93.1/93.0%, PM= 110.3/113.1%|
|Collegiate Soccer Players||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 66.8/67.4%, PL = 88.7/90.2%, PM= 104.3/105.3%|
|Collegiate Softball Players||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 63.5/63.9%, PL = 87.0/85.3%, PM= 100.7/99.6%|
|Collegiate Volleyball Players||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 66.8/65.3%, PL = 86.6/88.4%, PM= 102.7/102.3%|
|Hannon et al, 2014||UCL Injured Baseball Players, Pre-surgical (Average age= 18.5)||Cross-Sectional||Lead limb Composite: 90.2%, Stance limb: 89.4%|
|UCL Injured Baseball Players, 3 months post-op (Average age= 18.5)||Lead limb Composite: 93.6%, Stance limb: 94.9%|
|Garrison et al, 2013||UCL Injured Baseball Players (Average age= 18.5)||Cross-Sectional||Lead limb Composite: 89.1%, Stance limb: 88.2%|
|Asymptomatic Baseball Players (Average age= 19.0)||Lead limb Composite: 95.8%, Stance limb: 95.4%|
|Butler et al, 2012||Professional Soccer Players||Descriptive Laboratory Study||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 72.2%, PL = 114.7%, PM= 118.5%, Composite = 101.8%|
|Collegiate Soccer Players||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 72.8%, PL =114.6% , PM= 115.2%, Composite = 100.9%|
|High School Soccer Players||Percent of Leg Length: Ant = 76.2%, PL = 108.2%, PM= 111.0%, Composite = 98.4%|
|Study||Population||Study Design||Cut Point||Sn||Sp||+LR||-LR||AUC||OR|
|Wright et al., 2016||NCAA Division 1 Athletes||Prospective Cohort||Anterior reach difference ≥ 4cm||0.46||0.69||1.45||0.79||0.55||–|
|Left Normalized composite reach distance ≤ 94%||0.16||0.80||0.82||1.04||0.52||–|
|Left Normalized composite reach distance < 89%||0.06||0.95||1.32||0.98||0.52||–|
|Right Normalized composite reach distance ≤ 94%||0.24||0.78||1.12||0.97||0.52||–|
|Right Normalized composite reach distance < 89%||0.06||0.90||0.55||1.05||0.52||–|
|Normalized composite reach distance % score ≤ 94%||0.26||0.76||1.07||0.98||0.51||–|
|Normalized composite reach distance % score < 89%||0.01||0.95||0.10||1.05||0.51||–|
|Smith et al, 2014||NCAA Division 1 Athletes||Prospective Cohort||Anterior right/left reach distance difference > 4 cm||0.59||0.72||–||–||–||2.20|
|PM right/left reach distance difference > 4 cm||–||–||–||–||–||1.15|
|PL right/left reach distance difference > 4 cm||–||–||–||–||–||0.57|
|Butler et al, 2013||Collegiate Football Players||Prospective Cohort||89.6% Composite Score||1.00||0.72||–||–||–||3.50|
|Plisky et al, 2006||High School Basketball Players||Prospective Cohort||All Players Normalized Composite Right Reach Distance < 94%||–||–||–||–||–||3.00|
|All Players Anterior Reach Difference > 4cm||–||–||–||–||–||2.70|
|Girls Normalized Composite Right Reach Distance < 94%||–||–||–||–||–||6.50|
|Boys Anterior Reach Distance Difference > 4cm||–||–||–||–||–||3.00|
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